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Category Archives: Unix/Linux

How to Install Apache 2.4.2 from Source on CentOS 6.2 with SSL


This file ‘s origin is from :http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2012/05/install-apache-2-on-centos-6/

I found this tutorial is very helpful for me, you i save it to my blog ,in order to learn it .

If you try to follow the how to install Apache with SSL article that we discussed a while back, you’ll face an issue during “make” because of version compatibility between Apache 2.4.4 and APR utilities (Apache Portable Runtime Library) that comes with CentOS 6.

We’ve explained in this article how to solve that issue to get the latest Apache working on CentOS or RedHat.

Make sure you have gcc and openssl-devel installed.

# yum install gcc
# yum install openssl-devel

You also need “Apache Portable Runtime Library” APR to install Apache from source.

You’ll already have “apr” and “apr-util” package installed. Install the apr-devel and apr-util-devel packages.

# yum install apr-devel
# yum install apr-util-devel

Note: In our case (because of the version compatibility issues), we’ll be downloading these and installing it manually later. But, let us go with the flow for now and see what happens when you try to do it this way.

Download Apache

Download Apache from httpd.apache.org. The current stable release is 2.4.2.

Once you get the direct URL to download the latest stable version of Apache, use wget as shown below to download it directly to you server.

cd /usr/src
wget http://mirror.nyi.net/apache//httpd/httpd-2.4.2.tar.gz
tar xvfz httpd-2.4.2.tar.gz

Install Apache with SSL/TLS

View all available Apache installation and configuration options as shown below.

cd httpd-2.4.2
./configure --help

To install an Apache module, you would typically say –enable-{module-name}. For example, to install SSL with Apache, it is –enable-ssl. To install ldap module, it is –enable-ldap.

To uninstall any default module that comes with Apache, you would typically say –disable-{module-name}. For example, to disable basic authentication in Apache, it is –disable-auth-basic

In this example, we will install Apache with all default modules, with addition of –enable-ssl (to install mod_ssl for SSL support), and –enable-so, which helps to load modules in Apache during run-time via the Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) mechanism, rather than requiring a recompilation.

./configure --enable-ssl --enable-so
make
make install

Note: By default the above installs Apache under /usr/local/apache2. If you like to change this location, use –prefix option in the ./configure.

Fixing APR Utility Error Messages

You might’ve not faced this problem while installing older version of Apache as we discussed a while back.

When you execute the “make”, you might get “rotatelogs.c:(.text+0x5ed): undefined reference to `apr_file_link’” error message if you are doing this on CentOS 6.2 as shown below.

# make
rotatelogs.c:298: warning: implicit declaration of function âapr_file_linkâ
/usr/lib64/apr-1/build/libtool --silent --mode=link gcc -std=gnu99 -pthread
-o rotatelogs  rotatelogs.lo /usr/lib64/libaprutil-1.la -ldb-4.7 -lexpat -ldb-4.7 
/usr/lib64/libapr-1.la -lpthread
rotatelogs.o: In function `post_rotate':
rotatelogs.c:(.text+0x5ed): undefined reference to `apr_file_link'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make[2]: *** [rotatelogs] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/httpd-2.4.2/support'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/httpd-2.4.2/support'
make: *** [all-recursive] Error 1

This is because on CentOS 6, the latest APR version available through yum installation is 1.3.9 as shown below.

# rpm -qa apr*
apr-1.3.9-3.el6_1.2.x86_64
apr-util-1.3.9-3.el6_0.1.x86_64

However, Apache 2.4.2 needs the latest version of APR (which is currently 1.4.6).

So, go to APR download page and download both apr and apr-util.

cd /usr/src
wget http://mirror.atlanticmetro.net/apache//apr/apr-1.4.6.tar.gz
wget http://mirror.atlanticmetro.net/apache//apr/apr-util-1.4.1.tar.gz
tar xvfz apr-1.4.6.tar.gz
tar xvfz apr-util-1.4.1.tar.gz

Now, you should place this new version of apr and apr-util directories (without the version name in the directory) under “srclib” directory located under the httpd-2.4.2 directory that was created when you uncompressed the downloaded apache software.

In my example, I downloaded the httpd-2.4.2.tar.gz and uncompressed it under /usr/src. So, I need to place the latest apr and apr-util under this directory.

mv apr-1.4.6 /usr/src/httpd-2.4.2/srclib/apr
mv apr-util-1.4.1 /usr/src/httpd-2.4.2/srclib/apr-util

After this is done, we need to configure and make it again. If you execute the ./configure –help, you’ll see the following options that are related to APR

# cd /usr/src/httpd-2.4.2
# ./configure --help
  --with-included-apr     Use bundled copies of APR/APR-Util
  --with-apr=PATH         prefix for installed APR or the full path to apr-config
  --with-apr-util=PATH    prefix for installed APU or the full path to apu-config

If you decide to install the apr-1.4.6 and apr-util-1.4.1 on your system, you need to use “–with-apr” and “–with-apr-util” and provide the path where you installed these utility.

In this example, we didn’t do that. i.e We didn’t install the apr and apr-util that we downloaded. Instead we placed them under the httpd-2.4.2/srclib/apr-util. So, we should use “–with-included-apr” in the ./configure which will use these apr and apr-util only for the apache compilation and installation.

So, let us re-do the ./configure (using –with-included-apr), make and make install as shown below.

./configure --enable-ssl --enable-so --with-included-apr
make
make install

Now, make will not give “rotatelogs.c:(.text+0x5ed): undefined reference to `apr_file_link” error message anymore.

Enable SSL in httpd.conf

Apache configuration file httpd.conf is located under /usr/local/apache2/conf.

Uncomment the httpd-ssl.conf Include line and the LoadModule ssl_module line in the /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf file.

# vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so
Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf

View the httpd-ssl.conf to review all the default SSL configurations. For most cases, you don’t need to modify anything in this file.

# vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf

The SSL certificate and key are required before we start the Apache. The server.crt and server.key file mentioned in the httpd-ssl.conf needs to be created before we move forward.

# cd /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra
# egrep 'server.crt|server.key' httpd-ssl.conf
SSLCertificateFile "/usr/local/apache2/conf/server.crt"
SSLCertificateKeyFile "/usr/local/apache2/conf/server.key"

Create server.crt and server.key file

First, Generate the server.key using openssl.

# cd /usr/src
# openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024

The above command will ask for the password. Make sure to remember this password. You need this while starting your Apache later.

Next, generate a certificate request file (server.csr) using the above server.key file.

# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

Finally, generate a self signed ssl certificate (server.crt) using the above server.key and server.csr file.

# openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

After you’ve done with the above steps, you’ll see the following three files under /usr/src

# ls server*
server.crt  server.csr  server.key

Copy the server.key and server.crt file to appropriate Apache configuration directory location.

cp server.key /usr/local/apache2/conf/
cp server.crt /usr/local/apache2/conf/

Start the Apache

If you are getting the below error message, make sure to uncomment the line shown below in httpd.conf

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start
AH00526: Syntax error on line 51 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf:
Invalid command 'SSLCipherSuite', perhaps misspelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration

# vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so

If you are getting the below error message, make sure to uncomment the line shown below in httpd.conf

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start
AH00526: Syntax error on line 76 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf:
SSLSessionCache: 'shmcb' session cache not supported (known names: ).
 Maybe you need to load the appropriate socache module (mod_socache_shmcb?).

# vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
LoadModule socache_shmcb_module modules/mod_socache_shmcb.so

Finally, this will prompt you to enter the password for your private key before starting up the apache.

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start
Apache/2.4.2 mod_ssl (Pass Phrase Dialog)
Some of your private key files are encrypted for security reasons.
In order to read them you have to provide the pass phrases.

Server www.example.com:443 (RSA)
Enter pass phrase:

OK: Pass Phrase Dialog successful.

Verify that the Apache httpd process is running in the background

# ps -ef | grep http
root   29529     1  0 13:08 ?     00:00:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
daemon 29530 29529  0 13:08 ?     00:00:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
daemon 29531 29529  0 13:08 ?     00:00:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
daemon 29532 29529  0 13:08 ?     00:00:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -k start
root   29616 18260  0 13:09 pts/0 00:00:00 grep http

To stop the apache use apachectl stop.

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl stop

Use httpd -l to view all the modules that are compiled inside the Apache httpd daemon.

# /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd -l
Compiled in modules:
  core.c
  mod_so.c
  http_core.c
  event.c

By default Apache SSL runs on 443 port.

Open a web browser and verify that you can access your Apache using https://{your-ip-address}

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What do r w and x really mean for a directory in Unix Shell environment?


A directory is a file too, and “read” permission means you can read it. But you really cannot do very much without x permission as well. With directories, you usually have both read and execute permission or neither. On a directory, that x is officially called “search permission”. You need x to use a directory in a pathname. So if you try “cat /etc/passwd”, you will need x on / and /etc. You also need x to cd into a directory. Suppose you have read but not search (x) permission on a directory. What can you do? Not much. You can use “ls” to view the file names. Even “ls -l” will not work. Read access without search permission is not very useful. Still that is better than having only write permission on a directory…that is completely useless. I have not seen any other documentation that states this explicitly, so let me repeat it: write but no execute permission on a directory grants nothing at all.Suppose you have search (x) permission but no read permission on a directory. Now you can open files in the directory if you happen to know the file’s name. You can cd into the directory. And that is it. You cannot even create a new file. Adding write permission will allow you to create files. And you can then delete files if you happen to know their name.

How to install .bin file in Linux/Unix/


In order to  install *.bin file,

first you need to  open your Terminal/bash window:

1st step : use”file” command to confirm whether it is executable or non-executable:

i.e :     file  /path/file.bin

lets take Adobe Reader for example, 

file /Downloads/AdbeRdr9.4.2-1_i486linux_enu.bin (file is the command)

Now you should see a sentence including the word “executable” and not “non-executable, not executable,… or something completely different)

After I enter the command:  file /Downloads/AdbeRdr9.4.2-1_i486linux_enu.bin

it will display:  ########################################################################### [dbastudent@192-168-1-134 Downloads]$ file AdbeRdr9.4.2-1_i486linux_enu.bin AdbeRdr9.4.2-1_i486linux_enu.bin: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV),  dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, stripped ######################################################################### If you do not see “executable,…)” the file is probably an cd-image(BIN/CUE) and not an executable .bin-file

2nd Step :

Now enter: chmod +x file.bin

E.G:  chmod +x AdbeRdr9.4.2-1_i486linux_enu.bin  (chmod +x  is the command to give permission to execute this file)

No path! Just the name of the file!!! Now the file is executable…

Last step: Type:        /path/file.bin

take AdobeReader for example it will prompt the following command,

then type the path name where you would like to install:

Enter installation directory for Adobe Reader 9.4.2 [/opt] home/dbastudent/AdobeReader/

That ‘s all . Hopes to help you .